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USAWC Library provides Library Alerts to make open source reports of strategic interest available to patrons.
Last Updated: Apr 20, 2017 URL: http://usawc.libguides.com/Library_Alerts Print Guide RSS Updates
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Library Alert 04/17/2017

  • “Hypersonic Weapons: Appraising the ‘Third Offset’” by Robert Haffa and Anand Datla, American Enterprise Institute
    “Key Points:

    • The US military faces a host of challenges and options in an unpredictable security environment. Global disorder has increased while elements of America’s comparative military advantages have eroded.

    • The Pentagon has sought to innovate his way out of these dilemmas, embarking on a 'third offset' strategy designed to mitigate the operational challenges facing the US military and its traditional approach to power projection.

    • While hypersonic weapons are technologically and operationally promising, the challenge of diminished Pentagon budgets must be solved to introduce technologies while they are new and at a scale large enough to make a difference on the modern battlefield.”
  • “Managing the U.S.-Japan Alliance: An Examination of Structural Linkages in the Security Relationship” by Jeffrey W. Hornung, Sasakawa Peace Foundation USA
    This report “is an examination of structural linkages in the U.S.-Japan alliance aiming to answer the central question: Are the existing structures of communication and coordination optimized for managing alliance relations? It seeks to provide insight into the black box of bilateral decision-making by examining all the relevant actors in the national security sphere, how they interact, and any inherent structural challenges that may exist. Following a presentation of key actors in the national security sphere in both Japan and the United States is a description of how these actors communicate and coordinate with one another. The report finds that while the existing structures of communication and coordination are generally effective, they are not optimized for managing alliance relations. Alliance managers face an array of challenges. This report divides these challenges into situations of peacetime and crisis and conflict. The report concludes with policy recommendations."
  • “The Consequences of Brexit for European Defence and Security’ by Sarah Lain and Veerle Nouwens, Royal United Services Institute
    “This paper examines the contribution the UK currently makes to EU security in justice and home affairs, as well as through the Common Security and Defence Policy. It examines what the EU – and the UK – might lose if Brexit negotiations result in Britain withdrawing from participation in EU security structures.”
  • “United in Ambiguity? EU and NATO Approaches to Hybrid Warfare and Hybrid Threats” by Jan Jakub Uziębło, College of Europe
    “‘Hybrid warfare’, sometimes known as ‘hybrid threats’, became a trendy buzzword in recent years, used to describe a panoply of seemingly different threats. While neither the European Union (EU) nor the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) appear to have a clear definition of this term, both organisations are taking steps to ‘counter hybrid’. This paper explores why this terminology has been adopted by both organisations and seeks to understand how this semantic choice influenced their respective policy responses as well as their cooperation. By analysing what hybrid means and which actors are designated with this label, I show that both NATO and the EU used hybrid to describe their vulnerability to a rapidly changing strategic environment. Although no final definition of hybrid has materialised, the term has allowed for increased informal and formal NATO-EU cooperation.”
  • “Vulnerability Index: Subversive Russian Influence in Central Europe” by Daniel Milo and Katarína Klingová, GLOBSEC Policy Institute
    “The Visegrad group countries in Central Europe (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia – V4) are often perceived as a regional bloc of nations sharing similar aspirations, aims and challenges. They share common history, communist past, Soviet occupation and all joined the EU and NATO to embed themselves in the western civilization and transform their post-communist societies. However, there are internal forces in each of the Visegrad group countries trying to subvert and undo this journey and change the cultural and geopolitical orientation of each country. Such efforts are aided and strengthened also by foreign actors who use every opportunity to sow discontent, create divisions and provide alternative narrative for the whole region. Russia as the main regional actor operating outside of the EU-NATO framework is projecting its power in Central Europe."
  • “Making Sense of Russian Hybrid Warfare: A Brief Assessment of the Russo–Ukrainian War” by Amos C. Fox and Andrew J. Rossow, The Institute of Land Warfare, Association of the United States
    “Russian warfare in the 21st century has ushered in a new paradigm—one in which states are in perpetual conflict with one another in a manner that best operates in the shadows. This model, known to Americans and most Westerners as hybrid warfare, is known to Russians as New Generation Warfare. Hybrid warfare, much like any nation’s or polity’s way of warfare, is explicitly linked to the country from which it derives its power...In the case of Russia, the hybrid warfare model seeks to operate along a spectrum of conflict that has covert action and overt combat as its bookends, with partisan warfare as the glue that binds the two ends together. This model seeks to capitalize on the weaknesses associated with nascent technology and therefore acts aggressively in new domains of war—such as cyber—while continuing to find innovative ways to conduct effective information warfare."
  • “The Russian Navy - A Historic Transition” Office of Naval Intelligence
    Note: there are pdf’s and graphics associated with this resource on its homepage. “ONI's most recent unclassified report on Russia's navy, ‘The Russian Navy - A Historic Transition,’ looks historically and currently at the role played by Russian naval forces. It is the first such report discussing the Russian Federation Navy by ONI since the seventh and last issue of ‘Understanding Soviet Naval Developments’ published in 1991.”
  • “The PLA Navy: New Capabilities and Missions for the 21st Century” Office of Naval Intelligence
    Note: there are pdf’s, videos, and graphics associated with this resource on its homepage. “Since our last publication in 2009, the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLA(N)) has made significant strides in operationalizing as well as modernizing its force. Although the PLA(N)’s primary focus remains in the East Asia region, where China faces multiple disputes over the sovereignty of various maritime features and associated maritime rights, in recent years, the PLA(N) has increased its focus on developing blue-water naval capabilities. Over the long term, Beijing aspires to sustain naval missions far from China’s shores.”
  • “China’s Emerging Institutional Statecraft: The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the Prospects for Counter-Hegemony” by G. John Ikenberry and Darren Lim, the Brookings Institution
    “China is a rising power that is confronting an age-old geopolitical problem: what does it do with its new and growing capabilities? How does it project power and turn power into purpose? How does it gain more control over its geopolitical environment, within Asia and the wider world? Rising great powers inevitably find themselves with growing stakes in how the world is organized, and they seek to help shape that regional and global environment...In this paper, we focus on the building of new international institutions, and specifically ask: how can China use new international institutions to advance its interests? This question is of greatest salience at the level of the international system, and the prospect of China building a network of ‘counter-hegemonic’ institutions that successfully challenge—oppose and undermine—the U.S.-led global and regional institutions and the order they help sustain.”
  • “India’s Relations with the Latin America-Caribbean Region: Prospects and Constraints” by Sanjay Badri-Maharaj, Institute for Defense Studies and Analyses
    “This paper seeks, from a Latin American perspective, to examine India's relations with the Latin America-Caribbean region. It makes a distinction between the hesitant and somewhat apathetic approach of the Indian government towards enhanced ties with the region and the rather more proactive and enthusiastic approach by the Indian business sector which has seen Indian trade with the region growing many fold and increasing at the same rate as China's. India's diplomatic and political engagement with the region has been simultaneously too focused on trade while concentrating attention on Brazil alone without a similar level of engagement with other major countries in the region. It has also failed to show high-level diplomatic reciprocity & has allocated inadequate resources to its missions in the region to further its aims. The paper...argues that India needs to re-calibrate its engagement with the region and attach priority to broad-based engagement without diluting emphasis on trade

Library Alert 04/13/2017

  • "Defense Acquisition Trends, 2016: The End of the Contracting Drawdown" by Andrew P. Hunter et al., Center for Strategic & International Studies
    "This report is the second in an annual series examining trends in what the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is buying, how DoD is buying it, and from whom DoD is buying. This year’s study looks in depth at issues in research and development, acquisition reform in the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), performance of the defense acquisition system, the future of cooperative International Joint Development Programs, and major trends apparent in the activities of the major defense components. By combining detailed policy and data analysis, the study provides a comprehensive overview of the current and future outlook for defense acquisition"
  • "Recalibrating U.S. Strategy toward Russia: A New Time for Choosing" by Kathleen H. Hicks and Lisa Sawyer Samp (project directors), Center for Strategic and International Studies
    "These are turbulent times for American foreign policy. Nowhere are the challenges facing the United States more evident than in U.S. policy toward Russia. Drawing on scholars across several disciplines and perspectives, CSIS conducted a year-long study that sought to achieve two goals. First, to provide policymakers with a clearer understanding of Russia’s strategic motivations and objectives, along with the tools it uses to advance its goals. Second, to lay out a comprehensive strategy to secure U.S. and transatlantic interests in the face of the complex Russia challenge set."
  • "Europe in 2022: Alternative Futures" by Mathew Burrows and Frances Burwell, Atlantic Council
    "Sixty years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome, Europe faces its greatest challenges, and possibly its sharpest turning point, since World War II. The spectrum of possible futures for Europe is wide, encompassing everything from rebirth to disintegration. But, a strong leap toward greater EU-wide integration—as was sometimes the outcome of earlier crises—seems unlikely at best. Instead, this seems a time for smaller steps toward more integration, most likely in response to specific challenges, including: stronger external border controls; enhanced eurozone governance; or a more capable Common Security and Defense Policy. If the positive option is modest integration, the alternative future is one dominated by a clear break with past integration."
  • "Arctic Imperatives: Reinforcing U.S. Strategy on America’s Fourth Coast" by Thad W. Allen and Christine Todd Whitman, Chairs; Esther Brimmer, Project Director; Council on Foreign Relations
    “‘The United States, through Alaska, is a significant Arctic nation with strategic, economic, and scientific interests,’ asserts a new Council on Foreign Relations-sponsored (CFR) Independent Task Force report, 'Arctic Imperatives: Reinforcing U.S. Strategy on America's Fourth Coast.' With the Arctic ‘warming at twice the rate as the rest of the planet’ and melting sea ice opening up this resource-rich region to new trade routes and commercial activities, the report stresses that ‘the United States needs to increase its strategic commitment to the region or risk leaving its interests unprotected.’...The Task Force finds that the United States lags behind other Arctic nations that have ‘updated their strategic and commercial calculations to take advantage of the changing conditions stemming from the opening of the region.’”
  • "Missile Defense 2020: Next Steps for Defending the Homeland" by Thomas Karako, Ian Williams, and Wes Rumbaugh, Center for Strategic and International Studies
    "In policy pronouncements over the last two administrations, the protection of the American homeland was regularly identified as the first priority of U.S. missile defense efforts. Homeland missile defense today is provided by the Ground-based Midcourse Defense program and other elements of the larger Ballistic Missile Defense System. The limited defenses fielded today have advanced considerably since defensive operations began in late 2004, but nevertheless they remain too limited and too modest relative to emerging threats. The Missile Defense Agency’s path to improve the system may require additional effort to stay ahead of even limited missile threats. This report explains how the current system works, as well as current and potential plans to modernize the system, and the authors offer recommendations for future evolution of the system."
  • “Countering Violent Extremism: Actions Needed to Define Strategy and Assess Progress of Federal Efforts” Government Accountability Office
    “As of December 2016, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Department of Justice (DOJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation, and National Counterterrorism Center had implemented 19 of the 44 domestically-focused tasks identified in the 2011 Strategic Implementation Plan (SIP) for countering violent extremism (CVE) in the United States…The federal government does not have a cohesive strategy or process for assessing the overall CVE effort. Although GAO was able to determine the status of the 44 CVE tasks, it was not able to determine if the United States is better off today than it was in 2011 as a result of these tasks. This is because no cohesive strategy with measurable outcomes has been established to guide the multi-agency CVE effort. Such a strategy could help ensure that the individual actions of stakeholder agencies are measurable and contributing to the overall goals of the federal government's CVE effort."
  • “Marine Corps Asia Pacific Realignment: DOD Should Resolve Capability Deficiencies and Infrastructure Risks and Revise Cost Estimates” Government Accountability Office
    “The Department of Defense (DOD) has coordinated the relocation of Marines from Okinawa to other locations in the Asia-Pacific region through developing a synchronization plan and organizing working groups. However, DOD has not resolved selected identified capability deficiencies related to the relocation of Marine units; training needs in the region; the reduction in runway length at the Futenma Replacement Facility in Okinawa; and challenges for operating in Australia. DOD guidance indicates that mission requirements—which would include the capabilities needed to fulfill the mission—largely determine land and facility support requirements. If DOD does not resolve the selected identified capability deficiencies in its infrastructure plans, DOD may be unable to maintain its capabilities or face much higher costs to do so.”
  • “The Achievable Multinational Cyber Treaty: Strengthening Our Nation’s Critical Infrastructure” by Mark A. Barrera, Air University Press
    “Developing cyber norms and institutions has been problematic due to the competing interests of the major state actors in the multinational environment—especially among Russia, China, and the United States—concerning information freedom and access. The author establishes the genesis of this debate and argues that the United States should move beyond it to the issue of protecting critical infrastructure from cyber attack. Addressing the escalating threats to our nation’s infrastructure and networks, the author recommends pursuing an international agreement singularly focused on securing critical infrastructure combined with improving national regulatory and legislative measures for cyber defense.”
  • “From the Gulf to the Nile: Water Security in an Arid Region” by Peter Engelke and Howard Passell, Atlantic Council
    “Fresh water is fundamental to human health, social development, peace, and economic growth everywhere in the world. Yet in a great many places, and for a great many people, clean freshwater is scarce. Current trends on both the supply and demand sides strongly suggest that clean freshwater availability will become more challenging in more places in the future. As a result, water will become even more important than it currently is in contributing to the degradation of social, political, and economic systems in troubled countries around the world. Nowhere are these dynamics more evident or more important than in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where population growth and water scarcity threaten acute impacts in the years to come. An unreliable water supply can act as an important catalyst for instability, especially when present alongside other sources of discontent and unrest (such as ethnic, religious, political, or economic stressors).”
  • “Stability in the 21st Century: Global Food Security for Peace and Prosperity” prepared by an Independent Task Force on Global Food Security, Douglas Bereuter and Dan Glickman (cochairs), Chicago Council on Global Affairs
    “America is facing enormous global challenges at the beginning of 2017, including the threat of rapidly increasing global instability, conflict, and migration as a result of inadequate global food supplies and water scarcity. Today’s global population of 7.4 billion people is expected to grow to 8 billion by 2024 and 10 billion by 2056. In addition, rising incomes in many low- and middle-income countries are further increasing the demand for food to satisfy the desire for higher quality, more nutritious, and diverse diets. Yet we have never been as well equipped as we are today to respond to these challenges. Bipartisan leadership from the United States and action by the global community over the past 25 years has led to impressive results in the fight against the destabilizing forces of food insecurity."

Library Alert 03/23/2017

  • I. Webcast Conferences
  • "German Marshall Fund’s Brussels Forum" March 23-25, 2017, German Marshall Fund of the United States
    “GMF's Brussels Forum is the preeminent platform for policymakers and experts across different sectors to shape the transatlantic agenda and debate the most pressing global challenges. Most recently, the U.K.’s vote to leave the EU and the influx of refugees and migrants to Europe are challenging the closest allies of the United States. Both sides of the Atlantic are struggling with uneven economic growth, terrorist threats, an aggressive Russia, and an unstable Middle East. This confluence of crises is fueling inward-looking sentiments and fears about the future. With the shifting political landscape in Europe and the United States as a background, leaders from both sides of the Atlantic will address challenges, both present and future. The transatlantic partners are at a crossroads. It is critical to engage a diverse group of stakeholders and bring new voices into these debates.”
  • "Cyber Disrupt 2017" Center for Strategic & International Studies
    Program begins around 23:35
    "Cyber Disrupt 2017 is the premier event on cybersecurity in Washington, D.C. The summit will feature keynotes, interactive debates, and panel discussions on strategies, policies, and technology practices for Congress and the Administration that will be disruptive to the current status quo and improve cybersecurity."
  • II. Other Resources
  • “Project 1721: A U.S. Army War College Assessment on Russian Strategy in Eastern Europe and Recommendations on How to Leverage Landpower to Maintain the Peace” Douglas Mastriano, Project Leader, Strategic Studies Institute
    “Since its occupation of Crimea, Russia has adopted an aggressive and often belligerent approach to the nations on its borders. The on-going war against Ukraine and its occupation of large portions of Georgian territory demonstrates this increasingly hostile foreign policy. However, far more dangerous to the United States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the Kremlin's use of a strategy of ambiguity. In this, Moscow keeps hostilities at a low boil, leveraging a Russian diaspora, a web of complex information-campaign-trolls, to stir ethnic unrest that has the potential to destroy NATO and end the unparalleled post-World War II peace experienced in Europe. Yet, there are actions that the United States and NATO can take to prevent Russian aggression from turning into a war and ‘Project 1721’ provides the answers to this complex and dangerous security dilemma.”
  • “Strategy of ‘Constrainment’: Countering Russia’s Challenge to the Democratic Order” Ash Jain et al., Atlantic Council and the Centre for International Governance Innovation, in collaboration with think tanks in the D-10 Strategy Forum
    “The West needs a new strategy. The United States and its allies must be clear about the nature of the challenge posed by Russia, and put in place a coordinated and sustainable strategy to address this challenge, while advancing Western interests and values. Russian cooperation on certain issues—such as the fight against the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS)—may be worth exploring. To be effective, however, any approach to engage Russia must be grounded within the context of a broader strategy that recognizes and pushes back against Moscow’s efforts to undermine the rules-based international order."
  • “India-Japan Strategic Cooperation and Implications for U.S. Strategy in the Indo-Asia-Pacific Region” by Thomas F. Lynch III and James J. Przystup, Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University
    “The emerging strategic relationship between India and Japan is significant for the future security and stability of the Indo-Asia-Pacific region. It is also a critical emergent relationship for U.S. security objectives across the Asia-Pacific. India possesses the most latent economic and military potential of any state in the wider Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, India is the state with the greatest potential outside of the United States itself to contribute to the objectives of the ‘Rebalance to the Pacific’ announced by Washington in 2011. This ‘rebalance’ was aimed at fostering a stable, prosperous, and rules-based region where peace, prosperity, and wide respect for human rights are observed and extended. Implicit in the rebalance was a hedge against a China acting to challenge the existing post–World War II rules-based international and regional order.”
  • “Program Executive Officer Land Systems Advanced Technology Investment Plan 2017” Defense Innovation Marketplace, United States Marine Corps
    "This year’s ATIP theme is Autonomy. The Commandants Planning Guidance 2015, written by the former Commandant, General Joseph F. Dunford Jr, and amended in FRAGO 01/2016, Advanced to Contact, by the current Commandant, General Robert B. Neller, clearly states that the Marine Corps will pursue technologies that enhance our warfighting capabilities through Manned Unmanned Teaming (MUMT), such as unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and robotics, artificial intelligence, and autonomous technologies that provide tactical and operational advantage. PEO LS is looking for innovative solutions and game-changing technologies that will empower our Marine Corps to be dominant in defending our nation on the future battlefields.”
  • "Assessing the Third Offset Strategy" by Kathleen H. Hicks and Andrew Philip Hunter, Center for Strategic and International Studies
    "On October 28, 2016, the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) hosted a daylong conference, including senior defense and intelligence policymakers, military leaders, strategists, regional experts, international and industry partners, and others, to discuss the Defense Department’s Third Offset Strategy. In order to understand what the Third Offset Strategy is, it is first necessary to understand the challenges and trends it is addressing. Technological superiority has been a foundation of U.S. military dominance for decades. However, the assumption of U.S. technological superiority as the status quo has been challenged in recent years as near-peer competitors have sought a variety of asymmetric capabilities to counter the overwhelming conventional military advantages possessed by the United States. This report summarizes the discussions and analysis of the Third Offset that took place at CSIS."
  • “Is the U.S. Military Getting Smaller and Older? And How Much Should We Care?” by Steven M. Kosiak, Center for New American Security
    “Concerns about the adequacy of the U.S. military frequently focus on two issues: whether its force structure has gotten too small, and whether U.S. forces are being modernized too slowly and are too dependent on an aging weapons inventory. While this report offers some partial answers to these questions, its goal is less to provide answers than to raise the level of discussion. The report is organized into four sections, focused respectively on:

    • Historical trends in the size of the U.S. military’s force structure and the pace of its modernization efforts.

    • The main drivers of these trends.

    • The impact of these trends on U.S. military capabilities.

    • Shortcomings in the U.S. military’s traditional approach to sizing, shaping, and modernizing its forces that may have left it with smaller and older forces than could have been sustained within historical funding levels."
  • “Shaping Air Mobility Forces for Future Relevance” by Robert C. Owen, Air University Press
    “This report asks whether the national air mobility system (NAMS) of the United States will or will not be able to accomplish its full spread of mission responsibilities in an uncertain future fraught with emerging challenges and threats. More specifically, this report will examine operational, institutional, doctrinal, and technological trends shaping a useful answer to that question. That answer will recognize the unequalled readiness of the NAMS for future wars and conflicts while also identifying some of its more troubling shortfalls in specific task areas. In the end, this study will identify opportunities to mitigate those shortfalls in the near term and without breaking the defense budget, and it will propose some initial steps along a path to further reducing or even eliminating them over the longer term."
  • “Counterterrorism Yearbook 2017” edited by Jacinta Carroll, Australian Strategic Policy Institute
    “This yearbook looks at those areas around the world where terrorism and counterterrorism (CT) are in greatest focus. Each chapter examines CT developments in 2016, including the terrorist threat being faced and how governments and others have approached CT through both policy and operations. Countries and regions covered include Australia, Indonesia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, Europe, Turkey, UK, USA, Canada, Africa, Russia and China. Through this first Counterterrorism Yearbook, in what will be an annual publication, we aim to promote understanding and contribute to shared knowledge of CT.”
  • “Western Policy Towards Syria: Applying Lessons Learned” by Lina Khatib et al., Chatham House
    “Over the past six years, there has been a significant gap between the West’s rhetoric and its actions in Syria. Western policymakers must learn from their mistakes to form a more effective strategy.”

Library Alert 03/15/2017

  • “The Secretary General’s Annual Report 2016” North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    “The annual report provides an overview of how NATO protected its citizens and projected stability in 2016. It includes details on how NATO is enhancing deterrence and defence, engaging in dialogue, investing in security, improving capabilities, supporting the fight against terrorism, building relationships, sharing expertise, advancing the role of women in peace and security, and adapting as an institution.”
  • “Indian and Chinese Engagement in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Comparative Assessment” by R. Evan Ellis, Strategic Studies Institute
    “This monograph comparatively examines the content and country focus of high-level diplomacy for each of the two actors, as well as the volume and patterns of trade, the activities of Indian and Chinese companies in the region, and their relationship to their respective governments in eight sectors: (1) petroleum and mining; (2) agriculture; (3) construction; (4) manufacturing and retail; (5) banking and finance; (6) logistics and port operations; (7) technology such as telecommunications, space, and high technology; and, (8) military sales and activities."
  • "The Other Side of the World: China, the United States, and the Struggle for Middle East Security" by Jon Alterman, Center for Strategic & International Studies
    "As China looks westward for energy security, it finds the United States in a dominant position in the Middle East. China faces fundamental choices as to how it will manage its own rise without either clashing with the United States or creating undue burdens for itself as the largest Asian power. As the United States seeks to commit more attention to the Pacific, it must decide how it will seek to shape the Chinese role in the Middle East and how much of a role it wants to reserve to itself. The challenges for both countries manifest themselves especially in the space between East Asia and the Middle East, a space that, from a U.S. perspective, is truly the other side of the world."

Library Alert 03/06/2017

  • “The Al-Qaeda Organization and the Islamic State Organization: History, Doctrine, Modus Operandi, and U.S. Policy to Degrade and Defeat Terrorism Conducted in the Name of Sunni Islam” Paul Kamolnick, Strategic Studies Institute
    “The al-Qaeda Organization (AQO) and the Islamic State Organization (ISO) are transnational adversaries that conduct terrorism in the name of Sunni Islam. It is declared U.S. Government (USG) policy to degrade, defeat, and destroy them. The present book has been written to assist policymakers, military planners, strategists, and professional military educators whose mission demands a deep understanding of strategically-relevant differences between these two transnational terrorist entities. In it, one shall find a careful comparative analysis across three key strategically relevant dimensions: essential doctrine, beliefs, and worldview; strategic concept, including terrorist modus operandi; and specific implications and recommendations for current USG policy and strategy."
  • “Breaking Aleppo” by Maks Czuperski et al, Atlantic Council
    “Aleppo has been described as the Srebrenica, and the Rwanda, of our time. After more than four years of stalemate, and months of siege and battle, December 2016 saw the last of the population of the besieged eastern half of the city evacuated on the now-infamous green buses. The evacuation was the result of a crescendo of brutality...Using innovative open source methodologies, digital forensic research, forensic architecture, and geolocation analysis the Atlantic Council brings you a ground-breaking report capturing the final months of the breaking of Aleppo. Drawing from a vast team of international partners, the report lays out the facts and fictions of the conflict, serving as a reminder that the atrocities of Aleppo should not be so easily forgotten.”
  • “Rethinking the Drone War: National Security, Legitimacy, and Civilian Casualties in U.S. Counterterrorism Operations” Larry Lewis and Diane Vavrichek, Marine Corps University Press
  • “Loitering Munitions in Focus” Center for the Study of the Drone at Bard College
    "A loitering munition is a type of unmanned aerial vehicle designed to engage beyond line-of-sight ground targets with an explosive warhead. Loitering munitions are often portable and many are meant to provide ground units such as infantry with a guided precision munition. They are equipped with high resolution electro-optical and infrared cameras that enable the targeter to locate, surveil, and guide the vehicle to the target. A defining characteristic of loitering munitions is the ability to ‘loiter’ in the air for an extended period of time before striking, giving the targeter time to decide when and what to strike."
  • “Building ‘Situations of Strength’ A National Security Strategy for the United States” by Derek Chollet et al, Brookings Institution
    “Since the late 1940s, in the wake of World War II, the centerpiece of U.S. grand strategy has been to build and lead an international order composed of security alliances, international institutions, and economic openness, to advance the causes of freedom, prosperity, and peace. In 2016, for the first time, the American people elected a president who was highly critical of this international order and its constituent parts. This did not come out of the blue. Anxieties about globalization and America’s role in the world have been brewing for some time. Americans now face a consequential choice—to continue to lead and shape the postwar order or to leave it behind. World politics took a sharp turn for the worse over the past five years as two decades of great power cooperation gave way to a new era of geopolitical competition...The United States needs a strategy that begins with the setting of a clear goal: the renovation and reinvigoration of the postwar international order.”
  • “NIDS China Security Report 2017 - Change in Continuity: The Dynamics of the China-Taiwan Relationship” The National Institute for Defense Studies, Japan (NIDS)
    “The international community keeps a close watch on China's security policy and its military trends. The Japanese public has been increasingly aware of the large impact of China's rising military (and economic) power that may have a huge impact on Japanese security. China, now the second largest economy in the world, has become an essentially important economic partner for Japan and other East Asian countries. At the same time, its rapid economic growth allows China to multiply its military spending and move forward with the modernization of the People's Liberation Army (PLA). The NIDS ‘China Security Report’ analyzes the strategic and military trends of China. The report is originally published in Japanese, translated into English and Chinese.”
  • “The Future of U.S.-India Naval Relations” by Nilanthi Samaranayake, Michael Connell, and Satu Limaye, the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA)
    “CNA conducted this study to determine how the United States can advance its naval and maritime relationship with India in the coming five to 10 years. U.S.-India defense relations, especially in the naval domain, have expanded in the past two decades and soared under Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The study analyzes the key factors that have shaped the course of relations between the U.S. Navy (USN) and the Indian Navy and considers India’s possible future trajectories and how they may impact bilateral naval ties. CNA concludes that key factors affecting the evolution of the USN-Indian Navy relationship are mostly beyond the control of the two navies themselves. Despite the wider diplomatic and geopolitical circumstances, there are many overlapping areas of ongoing interest between the two navies that favor closer ties. Finally...this study suggests viewing the increasing importance of the region west of India as a promising area of bilateral naval security cooperation.”
  • “The U.S.-India Defense Relationship: Putting the Foundational Agreements in Perspective” by Mark Rosen and Douglas Jackson, the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA)
    “Three proposed defense foundational agreements between the United States and India—the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA), the Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement, and the Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement for Geospatial Intelligence—have been in negotiations for years. The LEMOA was finally signed in August 2016, while the other two agreements remain sticking points in the relationship. From India’s point of view, the agreements have been controversial; for the United States, the failure to conclude the agreements has impeded further growth in its defense ties with India. This paper explains the legal requirement for the agreements, provides analysis of the relevant legal texts, examines India’s strategic and operational concerns, and offers recommendations to further bilateral defense relations.”
  • “Weighted West, Focused on the Indian Ocean and Cooperating across the Indo-Pacific: The Indian Navy's New Maritime Strategy, Capabilities, and Diplomacy” by Satu Limaye, the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA)
    “This study examines how the Indian Navy’s new maritime strategy and missions, evolving capabilities, and vigorous diplomacy backed by India’s political leadership and Ministry of External Affairs are heralding a more cooperative and activist Indian navy in what India calls the ‘Indo-Pacific’ region and what U.S. defense officials refer to as the Indo-Asia-Pacific region."
  • "Recurring Storms: Food Insecurity, Political Instability, and Conflict" by Emmy Simmons, Center for Strategic & International Studies
    "Renewed and expanded international collaboration to anticipate and prepare for recurring storms of food insecurity is essential. Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Syria are examples that vividly underscore the explosiveness of situations in which people find themselves unable to get the food they want and need. The experiences of post-conflict countries highlight some critical issues that need to be prioritized in order to regain sustainable food security. Averting future storms will require the recognition that food security challenges will extend long beyond 2030, political leadership must be visibly committed to these issues, and actions to reduce fragmentation of effort will be critical."

Library Alert 02/22/2017 - Munich Security Conference (MSC) 2017

  • Munich Security Conference (MSC) 2017
    "Over the past five decades, the Munich Security Conference (MSC) has become the major global forum for the discussion of security policy. Each February, it brings together more than 450 senior decision-makers from around the world, including heads-of-state, ministers, leading personalities of international and non-governmental organizations, as well as high ranking representatives of industry, media, academia, and civil society, to engage in an intensive debate on current and future security challenges."

Library Alert 02/06/2017

  • “Futures Seminar. Volume Three: The United States Army in 2030 and Beyond: A Compendium of U.S. Army War College Student Papers” Samuel R. White, Jr. (Ed.) (Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College Press, 2016)
  • “Seven Defense Priorities for the New Administration” Defense Science Board
    “The United States has the most powerful, precise, and professional armed forces in the world. Nevertheless our military is challenged: Russia, China, Iran, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea roil the World Order. Terrorists operate by global franchise, and groups like the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) attempt to establish caliphates. Deterring nuclear war, arguably the highest priority for the Department of Defense (DoD), is complicated by new potential routes to nuclear escalation. States deterred by U.S. military might are pursuing asymmetric strategies of ‘gray zone’ conflict: war short of all-out war. Long-term commitments to missions of stabilization, reconstruction, peacekeeping and nation building consume human and financial military resources for decades. New weapons like cyber and autonomous systems are aimed at the heart of the U.S. military strategy predicated on technological superiority; but also offer the U.S. an opportunity to grasp.”
  • “Countering the U.S. Third Offset Strategy: Russian Perspectives, Responses and Challenges” Vasily Kashin and Michael Raska, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies
    “The U.S. defence community is currently debating a range of capability requirements and top priority investments that will shape U.S. strategy and the use of force in the 21st century. Embedded in a broader conceptual umbrella of the Third Offset Strategy, the U.S. Department of Defence (DOD) seeks to develop technologically enabled novel operational and organisational constructs...At the same time, the Third Offset strategy aims to revamp institutional agility in U.S. defence management to succeed in a dynamically evolving operational environment...Strategic effectiveness of the Third Offset, however, will not only depend on the institutional agility and adoption capacity...but will also depend on the responses, resources, & counter-innovations by peer competitors...This is report aims to ascertain the evolving contours of the Russian strategic thought & responses toward the Third Offset strategy.”
  • “Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Warfare” by M. L. Cummings, Chatham House
    “The rise in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) – commonly known as drones – in both military and commercial settings has been accompanied by a heated debate as to whether there should be an outright ban on what some label ‘killer robots’...Such robots, which could be in the air, on the ground, or in and under water, theoretically incorporate ‘artificial intelligence’ (AI) that would make them capable of executing missions on their own…This paper presents first a framework explaining the current state of the art for AI [Artificial Intelligence], the strengths and weaknesses of AI, and what the future likely holds. Given that the advancement of AI is inextricably linked to the expertise of the engineers developing these systems, the case is then made that the shift in expertise from the military to the commercial sector will further complicate policy discussions on autonomous weapon, and will make it difficult for governments to deploy and manage these systems."
  • "Mediterranean Futures 2030: Toward a Transatlantic Security Strategy" Atlantic Council
    “A region in flux, the Mediterranean of today–and tomorrow–faces an array of complex challenges. Demographic shifts, evolving political and security contexts, economic uncertainty, and climate change have created massive migration flows and regional instability, straining resources in southern Europe. These and other drivers of change have highlighted the increased importance of developing a transatlantic security strategy for the region”
  • “Water and U.S. National Security” Joshua Busby, Council on Foreign Relations
    “Water and security concerns are inextricably linked in every region of the world. While shared interests have historically facilitated cooperation in managing water, the future could be different. Climate change, combined with increased and more diverse demands for water, makes disputes more likely. Moreover, many of the security problems associated with water will occur in areas where the United States has strategic interests, including the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific. Yet water as an issue for U.S. national security lacks sustained visibility and sufficient funding…The failure to invest in water and security now could mean that the United States and other international actors will pay billions later to respond to crises, whether they be humanitarian emergencies, disease outbreaks, or conflicts within or between states.”
  • "Designing and Managing Successful International Joint Development Programs" Center for Strategic & International Studies
    "International joint development programs are important because of their potential to reduce costs and increase partnership benefits such as interoperability, economies of scale, and technical advancement. While all major development and acquisition programs are complex undertakings, international joint development programs introduce additional layers of complexity in the requirement for coordination with more than one government customer, supply chain and organizational complexities resulting from international industrial teaming, and technology control issues. The performance of international joint development programs varies greatly. This study compares the best practices of international joint development and domestic development programs through case-study analysis to identify the key variables that contribute to a program’s eventual success or failure and to understand the elements that are crucial to managing these programs."
  • “America’s Nuclear Backbone: The Value of ICBMs and the New Ground-Based Strategic Deterrent” by Roger W. Burg, Mitchell Institute for Aerospace Studies
    “Since the end of the Cold War, the United States has delayed and truncated much of the required modernization of the nuclear deterrent enterprise. However, given the rapid modernization of the nuclear forces of nations such as Russia and China, as well as the nuclear aspirations of North Korea and Iran, it is imperative that the nation maintains a highly credible deterrent force to balance this threat."
  • “Preventing Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation – Leveraging Special Operations Forces to Shape the Environment” by Lonnie Carlson and Margaret E. Kosal, Joint Special Operations University
    “This paper argues that the critical shortfall in preventing WMD proliferation is a lack of detailed understanding of proliferation networks by U.S. and partner security forces. This failure to understand the environment leads to a lack of timely indications, warning, and actionable intelligence needed to conduct time-sensitive operations against fleeting WMD proliferation targets. To mitigate this shortfall, USSOCOM must build WMD expertise within SOF, and collaborate with USG and part ner nation organizations to conduct WMD counterproliferation-related building partnership capacity (BPC) and operational preparation of the environment (OPE) activities.”

Liberty Alert 01/24/2017

  • “Getting Defense Acquisition Right” by Frank Kendall, Defense Acquisition University Press
  • “Africa: Year in Review 2016” Ms. Kamissa Camara et al., Wilson Center Africa Program
    “2016 was an eventful year for Africa and for the world, with important implications for U.S.-Africa relations. From continuing democratic consolidation and deepening trade ties in many countries to the shocking electoral defeat and standoff in the Gambia, to South Sudan’s escalating crisis, to the debates over the future of the ICC in Africa, the year was marked by progress, setbacks, and change. The Wilson Center Africa Program asked experts, scholars, and policymakers to weigh in on the most important and impactful events on the continent in 2016. They responded with this collection of brief and insightful essays touching on issues of governance and democracy, conflict and security, trade, and the role of international partnerships across the African continent.”
  • “Redefining Euro-Atlantic Values: Russia's Manipulative Techniques” NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence
    "This study, ‘Redefining Euro-Atlantic Values: Russia`s Manipulative Techniques’, is not one of the many investigations published in recent months focusing on Russian information warfare in Ukraine. It is not a study about them. This is a study about us, namely, the ‘transatlantic community’—a community we consider to be based on democratic values. This study seeks to answer an essential question: how can it be that countries, which enjoy leading positions in terms of prosperity, freedom, solidarity, innovation, economic competitiveness, and seemingly unlimited normative power based on the long-standing democratic traditions have neglected or ignored (intentionally and unintentionally) the manipulative redefinition of their core democratic values. By allowing our core democratic values to be deconstructed and reconstituted by values derived from an authoritarian regime makes Western society vulnerable to influence.”
  • "Russia in Global Affairs" (recorded webcast) Center for Strategic & International Studies
    "Please join the CSIS Russia and Eurasia Program and the Georgetown University Center for Eurasian, Russian, and East European Studies for the launch of a special edition of the 'Strategic Affairs' journal entitled "Russia in Global Affairs." The articles that make up this issue address the general framework of post-Soviet Russian foreign policy, analyze the specific factors that shape that policy, and dive deep into the specifics of Moscow's approaches to Europe, Asia, the United States, and the post-Soviet space. We will be joined by six of the authors who contributed to this special issue of 'Strategic Affairs', each of whom will present their papers"
  • "Russia's Intervention in Syria: Lessons Learned" (recorded webcast) Center for Strategic & International Studies
    "In September 2015, Russia intervened militarily in Syria in support of the Syrian government. Over the next 15 months, Russia bolstered the Assad government in its efforts to retake large portions of the country and targeted Assad’s adversaries, often with considerable civilian cost. What has Russia learned from over a year of conflict? And what can we deduce from this conflict about Russian military capabilities and strategy? Ruslan Pukhov of the Center for the Analysis of Strategies and Technologies (CAST) in Moscow will join us to break down the lessons learned."
  • “China’s Investment in Latin America” by David Dollar, Brookings Institution
    “For the five-year period between 2015 and 2019, China’s President Xi Jinping set ambitious goals for exchange with the Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC): $500 billion in trade and $250 billion in direct investment. The pledge was made in January 2015 at the first ministerial meeting of the Forum of China and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, which was held in Beijing. Although it remains to be seen if this degree of integration can be achieved, the investment target is certainly plausible, as China is likely to emerge in the next few years as the world’s largest supplier of capital. That a developing country is emerging as the world’s largest investor is a surprising phenomenon. In this paper, David Dollar examines China’s investment in LAC and tackles some important questions that arise."
  • “China’s Alternative to GPS and its Implications for the United States” by Jordan Wilson, U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission
    “China’s Beidou satellite navigation system—one of the country’s top space projects and only the fourth system of its kind currently in development or operation—is projected to achieve global coverage by 2020. This report examines the objectives behind Beijing’s decision to develop the system as an alternative to GPS, its efforts to build an industry around the system, and the effects this might have in security, economic, and diplomatic terms for the United States. The system’s primary purpose is to end China’s military reliance on GPS, although China’s associated industrial policies will likely affect U.S. firms operating in China’s market. Industry professionals assess there are no inherent risks to products such as smartphones receiving data from Beidou.”
  • “Responding to the Chinese Space Challenge” by Dean Cheng, Heritage Foundation
    “As 2016 drew to a close, China published its third space white paper, sustaining the pattern of publishing one every five years.1 This is consistent with the cycle of Five Year Plans that are central to Chinese economic and social planning efforts. ‘China’s Space Activities in 2016’ provides both an overview of China’s space achievements over the past five years and an outline of key projects and milestones for the next five years.”

Library Alert 01/10/2017 - Global Strategic Forecasts and Assessments

  • “Global Trends: Paradox of Progress” by the National Intelligence Council
    “Every four years since 1997, the National Intelligence Council has published an unclassified strategic assessment of how key trends and uncertainties might shape the world over the next 20 years to help senior US leaders think and plan for the longer term. The report is timed to be especially relevant for the administration of a newly elected US President, but 'Global Trends' increasingly has served to foster discussions about the future with people around the world. We believe these global consultations, both in preparing the paper and sharing the results, help the NIC and broader US Government learn from perspectives beyond the United States and are useful in sparkling discussions about key assumptions, priorities, and choices.”
  • “Preventive Priorities Survey: 2017” by Paul B. Stares, Council on Foreign Relations
    "A serious military confrontation between Russia and a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) member state or a severe crisis in North Korea are among top international concerns for 2017 cited by a new survey of experts. The Council on Foreign Relations’ (CFR) ninth annual ‘Preventive Priorities Survey’ identified seven top potential flashpoints for the United States in the year ahead."
  • "Global Conflict Tracker" (Interactive) Council on Foreign Relations
  • “2017 Global Forecast” by the Center for Strategic & International Studies
    “‘Global Forecast’ is an annual collection of essays by CSIS experts focused on the critical issues facing the U.S. and the world in the year ahead.”
  • "States of Fragility 2016: Understanding Violence" Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
    "The world is getting more violent, and violence is occurring in surprising places. Over the past 15 years, 3.34 billion people, or almost half of the world’s population, have been affected by violence. The number of violent conflicts is decreasing, but conflicts are killing more people: conflict-related deaths have tripled since 2003. Violent extremism and terrorism are also on the rise. The economic cost of violence is rising too: the global economic impact of violence is a staggering USD 13.6 trillion, equivalent to 13.6% of Global GDP. And civilians, especially children and women, are most at risk."
  • “Atlantic Currents 2016: An Annual Report on Wider Atlantic Perspectives and Patterns” by the German Marshall Fund of the United States
    “We are delighted to present this third edition of ‘Atlantic Currents’, an annual report charting wider Atlantic patterns and perspectives. GMF and the OCP Policy Center are proud of the role we have played in extending the transatlantic debate to embrace the Atlantic Basin, north and south, and in stimulating new thinking about ‘Atlanticism’ for the 21st century — breaking down the often self-imposed barriers to robust dialogue among societies with a deep shared history, and a shared stake in cooperation. The rapid changes on all sides of the Atlantic over the past year only underscore the importance of this Atlantic conversation on issues and ideas. This year, we have devoted special attention to strategic, forward-looking analyses that seek to encourage creative thinking about where we may be headed and how we might get there.”
  • “Crisis Overview 2016: Humanitarian Trends and Risks for 2017” by the Assessment Capacities Project
    “‘The Crisis Overview 2016: Humanitarian Trends and Risks for 2017’ takes advantage of four years of daily monitoring of humanitarian needs to identify long-term trends and indicate potential risks for the coming year. This year, we have focused on providing a more concise picture of overall trends in need. We have slightly altered our approach when selecting which countries to include, to pay more attention to the potential worsening of the situation. So you will find that Sudan is not in the report, but Zimbabwe and Venezuela are. We also consider the countries of Latin America’s Northern Triangle, where gang violence is having an increasingly severe humanitarian impact. The aim of the report is to deepen collective understanding of how needs have evolved over time in some of the most severe humanitarian crises in the world."
  • "Global Militarization Index 2016" by the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC)
    “‘Compiled by BICC, the 'Global Militarization Index' (GMI) presents on an annual basis the relative weight and importance of a country’s military apparatus in relation to its society as a whole. The GMI 2016 covers 152 states and is based on the latest available figures (in most cases data for 2015). The index project is financially supported by Germany’s Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development.”

Library Alert 12/19/2016

  • "Nobel Peace Prize Forum Oslo 2016 with Dr. Henry Kissinger and Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski" Nobel Peace Prize Forum Oslo
    "The first Nobel Peace Prize Forum Oslo was held on Sunday 11 December 2016. The topic of this year’s Forum was 'The United States and World Peace after the Presidential Election'. Keynote speakers are former U.S. top officials and foreign policy experts Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski and Dr. Henry Kissinger. After their speeches they took part in a 45-minute discussion moderated by Olav Njølstad, Director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute."
  • "Implementing Innovation Series: Leading Innovative Organizations" (Recorded Webcast) Center for Strategic & International Studies
    "The Implementing Innovation Series is focused on moving the conversation in Washington about how to enable innovation in government beyond a discussion of technologies and into a discussion about how organizations foster innovation. All organizations experience change, and must be capable of adapting and innovating if they are to succeed. At the same time, all organizations face barriers to innovation and have incentives to resist or stymie change. The Implementing Innovation Series is designed to explore the areas and ways in which innovation can be tapped to bring about organizational change, particularly in public organizations. The goal of the event is to identify the mechanisms which allow organizations to locate organizational problems that can be addressed by new approaches; dedicate resources and make the space necessary for new approaches to be explored, tested, and demonstrated; and adapt organizationally to get the benefits of new approaches when they are implemented."
  • "Russian National Identity and Foreign Policy" by Igor Zevelev, Center for Strategic & International Studies
    "This report analyzes how Russia’s domestic discourses on national identity—including beliefs about the self and the world, as well as interpretations of historic legacies—influence foreign policy and why this impact became particularly strong in the 2012–2016 period. It traces the role of domestic narratives in shaping international behavior to enhance our understanding of how and when major foreign policy shifts take place."
  • "Russian National Identity and Foreign Policy" (Recorded Webcast) Center for Strategic & International Studies
  • “A Measured US Strategy for the New Africa” By Dr. J. Peter Pham, Atlantic Council
    “Africa’s story is increasingly one of economic dynamism that is driven, in part, by political reform and improvements in governance. But, there are also very real security, humanitarian, and developmental challenges that remain to be confronted. The United States has a stake in helping to tackle these challenges, not least because it is in its own national interest to do so. To complicate matters, some African countries are still grappling with the conception of ‘statehood,’ since, in many cases, the state was an imposition of European colonialism. In this seventh ‘Atlantic Council Strategy Paper’, Atlantic Council Vice President and Africa Center Director Dr. J. Peter Pham argues that the United States needs to modernize its relations with a changing Africa to best engage a new range of actors and circumstances. The change of US administration in January offers a unique opportunity to recalibrate US strategy toward a rapidly transforming continent."
  • "A Measured US Strategy for the New Africa" (Recorded Webcast) Atlantic Council
  • “From ‘Look East’ to ‘Act East’: India as a Security Actor and Security Provider” Jagannath P. Panda, East Asia Institute
    “In its engagement with East Asia, India has preferred so far to become a security actor. Currently, however, the subject matter of India as a possible security provider in East Asia is slowly gaining importance. The conventional wisdom of international politics suggests that a security provider needs not only constant and robust policy engagements but also a serious pursuit of big-power diplomacy. A security provider does not necessarily need a stronger security alliance, but requires to have a leadership vision and presence with reciprocation of a particular region. Besides, a security provider is not meant to participate in conflicting matters and undertake balance-of-power politics. If anything, it participates in the governance process of the region and addresses the non-security challenges as well as traditional security challenges through a responsive and responsible partaking, and upholds peace and stability in the region through its presence and active participation."
  • “China’s Military Deployments in the Gulf of Aden: Anti-Piracy and Beyond” by Jérôme Henry, Institut Français des Relations Internationales
    “The reason for the deployment of a People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) ‘anti-piracy task force’ in the Gulf of Aden (GoA), a key area for the Chinese economy, was obvious in 2008. However, as the pirate activity has faded away since 2012, the objectives of the PLAN in GoA became unclear. This article seeks to understand those objectives and how the anti-piracy missions have evolved from protecting Chinese shipping interests in GoA to a strategic forward deployment, contributing to the rise of Chinese sea-power in the Indian Ocean."
  • "People on War 2016" International Committee of the Red Cross
    "Between June and September 2016, over 17,000 people in 16 countries were asked to share their views on a range of issues relating to war – in the ‘People on War’ survey. The results are both reassuring and alarming. We asked people living in countries affected by armed conflict if they believe the rules of war matter. They do. Over two thirds of people living in these countries as well as those from countries that are permanent members of the UN Security Council and Switzerland think it makes sense to impose limits on how they are fought. Almost half of those surveyed in conflict-affected countries believe the Geneva Conventions prevent wars from getting worse. But we also see that people are becoming resigned to the death of civilians as an inevitable part of war. There is a disconnect between public opinion and the policies and actions of States and armed groups. Violations of the laws of war – including the targeting of civilians, humanitarian workers and hospitals – cont

Library Alert 12/09/2016

1. “2017 Presidential Transition Information Resources” (LibGuide) by Bert Chapman, Purdue Libraries

“This guide provides access to information on federal agency management issues facing the incoming Trump-Pence Administration. Consists of resources from government agencies and public policy research institutions.”

2. "2016 Global Security Forum" (Recorded Webcasts) Center for Strategic & International Studies

"Join us for CSIS' annual flagship conference on the top challenges facing U.S. and global security. This year's Forum will focus on the foreign and security policy agenda for the next U.S. Administration."

Links to the following programs are on the page linked to above.

“Welcoming Remarks and Plenary I - Navigating 21st Century Security Challenges"

“Session 1: Russia Today and Tomorrow: Implications for the U.S.”

“Session 2: Energy and Climate Challenges for the Next Administration”

“Session 3: Defense Market Outlook: Challenges for the Next Administration”

“Session 4: In the Cross-Hairs: The Surge of Violence against the Health Sector”

"Session 1: Challenges from North Korea"

"Session 2: After Mosul"

"Session 3: The Global Health Security Agenda: Its First Years and the Way Forward"

"Session 4: Key Decisions for Strategic Space Programs in the Next Administration"

"Plenary II - Public Opinion Trends and Implications for the Next Administration's Foreign Policy Agenda"

"Plenary III - National Security Priorities and Challenges for the Presidential Transition"

      

    Library Alert 12/06/2016

    Library Alert 11/23/2016

    Library Alert 11/18/2016

    Library Alert 10/24/2016

    • “A Sharper Choice on North Korea: Engaging China for a Stable Northeast Asia” by Mike Mullen et al., the Council on Foreign Relations
      “A new Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) Independent Task Force report...finds that the United States’ policy of ‘strategic patience’ with North Korea will neither halt that country’s recurring and dangerous cycle of provocation nor ensure the stability of Northeast Asia in the future. To the contrary, the Task Force warns, ‘If allowed to continue, current trends will predictably, progressively, and gravely threaten U.S. national security interests and those of its allies.’ Chaired by Mike Mullen, retired admiral and former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and Sam Nunn, former U.S. senator and co-chairman and chief executive officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative, the Task Force finds that ‘North Korea’s accelerating nuclear and missile programs pose a grave and expanding threat to the territory of U.S. allies, to U.S. personnel stationed in the region, and to the continental United States.'"
    • “U.S.-India Security Cooperation: Progress and Promise for the Next Administration” (Report) Kathleen H. Hicks et al, Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS)
      “The U.S.-India relationship has fluctuated from mutual suspicion to the current high-water mark of cooperation embodied in the seemingly close relationship between U.S. president Barack Obama and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi. This study seeks to identify the opportunities to deepen security cooperation between the two counties, while ensuring continued effort to reduce the obstacles and impediments in each system to working with the other.”
    • “U.S.-India Security Cooperation: Progress and Promise for the Next Administration” (Podcast), Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS)
    • “The Impossible Transatlantic Discussion on the U.S. Third Offset Strategy” by Martin Quencez, the German Marshall Fund of the United States
      “The U.S. Department of Defense launched a defense initiative, often called the ‘Third Offset Strategy,’ to ensure that Washington maintains technological superiority and ‘military dominance for the 21st century.’ If the Europeans are not to be also offset by the U.S. military’s next leap forward, they will have to be engaged in this process. However, the initiative and its concrete implications remain unclear to most European partners, and even if they did understand the U.S. vision better, the lack of strategic discussions at the European level prevents Europe from developing its own coherent, complementary vision...Though the United States and its European allies do not share the same strategic starting point for a constructive dialogue around the Third Offset, they must try. Failure to do so poses clear risks for defense interoperability, deterrence policy, and, eventually, for the transatlantic security partnership as a whole.”
    • “This Man’s Military: Masculine Culture’s Role in Sexual Violence” by Peter J.S. Lee, Air University Press
      “Culture trumps strategy every time. The author proposes that the Department of Defense has mistakenly focused too much on a strategy to combat sexual assault without due recognition of military cultural factors. Colonel Lee concludes that while there is enough evidence to suggest that the military is demographically and culturally predisposed to a higher-than-average frequency of interpersonal violence and sexual assault, more research on who joins the military (and why) is needed. To reduce interpersonal violence and sexual assault, the military must confront its members’ beliefs—not just their behaviors. The author illustrates not only how organizational change theory can be used to empower those most at risk of sexual assault to avoid becoming victims but also how to make the military a less friendly environment to would-be offenders prior to them getting the chance.”
    • “EU@60 - Countering a Regressive and Illiberal Europe” by Janis A. Emmanouilidis and Fabian Zuleeg, European Policy Centre
      “In this paper, drafted as an input to the discussions at the EPC Strategic Council and the EPC’s 20th Anniversary Conference on 13 October, Janis A. Emmanouilidis and Fabian Zuleeg discuss the future of the European project, and what’s actually at stake; not only the fate of an international institution, but something more significant – it is about our way of life; it is about being an open, free, cooperative, internationalist and inclusive Europe. After a detailed analysis of the current state of the Union, the many complex and interlinked crises it is facing, and what (not) to expect next, they examine the underlying causes of the forces threatening today´s societies. The biggest threat of all, they argue, is the danger of a regressive and illiberal Europe – a Europe in which key values, orientations, norms, and principles are being undermined, and nationalistic, protectionist, discriminatory, xenophobic, intolerant and authoritarian elements get the upper hand."
    • “The Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative” [AMTI] Podcast from the Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS)
      “The AMTI Podcast covers developments in the Asia-Pacific maritime domain, from land reclamation, to fisheries disputes.”

    Library Alert 10/11/2016

    Library Alert 09/21/2016

    Library Alert 09/06/2016

    • “The African Union: Regional and Global Challenges” by Dawn Nagar and Fritz Nganje (Rapporteurs), the Centre for Conflict Resolution (South Africa)
      "“The Centre for Conflict Resolution (CCR) in Cape Town, South Africa, held a three-day policy research seminar at the Vineyard Hotel in Cape Town, South Africa, from 27 to 29 April 2016, on the theme ‘The African Union: Regional and Global Challenges’… the Cape Town seminar brought together prominent African and non-African policymakers, scholars, and civil society activists to reflect critically on the historical mission, achievements, challenges, and prospects of the AU in a changing regional and global environment. The meeting also provided a platform for generating concrete ideas on developing the capacity of the AU and repositioning the continental organisation as an effective vehicle for promoting sustainable peace, democratic governance, and socio-economic development in Africa,"
    • “The Asian Research Network: Survey on America’s Role in the Asia-Pacific” by the Asian Research Network
      Asian Research Network: the United States Studies Centre at the University of Sydney (Australia), with the Perth USAsia Centre (Australia), Asahi Shimbun (Japan), the Asan Institute for Policy Studies (South Korea), the Centre for Strategic and International Studies (Indonesia), and the Shanghai Institutes for International Studies (China) - “At a time when China is making clear its strategic regional ambitions and when a tumultuous US presidential campaign is raising concerns about the United States policy, there is a great interest throughout the Asia-Pacific in the role of the United States in the region. What do mass publics around the region believe about the US presence in the Asia-Pacific? How does public opinion around the region vary with respect to China’s rising influence? What elements of American influence carry more weight and in which countries? How likely is conflict in the region? How beneficial is increased trade with the United States, or China, for that matter?"
    • “The Russian World in Moscow’s Strategy” by Igor Zevelev, Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS) (United States)
      “Moscow’s efforts to strengthen its influence in Eurasia continue to cause anxiety in the states along Russia’s periphery, in Europe, and in the United States. Russia’s capacity to engage Russian compatriots is widely perceived as one of the main instruments of Moscow’s influence in the region and a tool to recreate Russia’s great power status. A closer investigation of Russia’s policy reveals, however, that short-term tactical gains are offset by serious, damaging long-term costs, not the least of which is a diminishment of the efficacy of the compatriots’ policy as a foreign policy tool. Yet the narrative of a Russian World has become a major factor in the development of Russia’s post-Soviet national identity and its engagement with the Eurasian geopolitical landscape.”
    • “Russian Roulette” Podcast from the Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS) (United States)
      “Hosted by CSIS Russia and Eurasia Program experts Olga Oliker and Jeffrey Mankoff, 'Russian Roulette' takes a look at the politics, economics, and culture of Russia and Eurasia through both interviews and lively discussion with experts from CSIS and around the world.”
    • “Zbigniew Brzezinski on Reconnecting Asia – ‘Russian Roulette’ Bonus Episode”
      “In this very special bonus episode, we are pleased to feature a conversation between Zbigniew Brzezinski and CSIS President and CEO John J. Hamre, in which Dr. Brzezinski discusses the reconnection of Asia and its geopolitical implications. This conversation is part of a series produced by the Brzezinski Institute on Geostrategy at CSIS.”
    • “Zbigniew Brzezinski on Europe and Russia and ‘Russian Roulette’ Bonus Episode”
      “In this very special bonus episode, we are pleased to feature a conversation between Zbigniew Brzezinski and CSIS President and CEO John J. Hamre, in which Dr. Brzezinski discusses recent developments in Russian foreign policy and the implications for Europe. This conversation is part of a series produced by the Brzezinski Institute on Geostrategy at CSIS.”

    Library Alert 08/22/2016

    • “The Army War College Review” 2, no. 2 (May 2016), Strategic Studies Institute and the United States Army War College
      “‘The Army War College Review’, a refereed publication of student work, is produced under the purview of the Strategic Studies Institute and the United States Army War College. An electronic quarterly, 'The AWC Review' connects student intellectual work with professionals invested in U.S. national security, Landpower, strategic leadership, global security studies, and the advancement of the profession of arms.”
    • “The Millennial Generation: Implications for the Intelligence and Policy Communities” by Cortney Weinbaum, Richard Girven, Jenny Oberholtzer, RAND Corporation
      “In 2015, for the first time, millennials outnumbered baby boomers as the largest generational segment of the U.S. population. This report describes how the intelligence community (IC) must engage millennials across multiple segments to succeed in the future: millennials as intelligence clients, employees, and partners and as members of the public. The authors explore how the perspectives and experiences of millennials falling into each segment are relevant to IC functions and missions. Millennials in each segment may perceive intelligence differently from previous generations, which may influence whether and how they partner and engage with the IC; such decisions will affect future intelligence missions. This report provides an understanding of areas in which intelligence agencies may benefit from further study.”
    • “War on the Rocks” Podcasts
      “Great discussions with security, defense, and foreign policy experts.”
    • “The World Next Week” Podcasts, Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)
      “CFR offers the weekly podcast 'The World Next Week,' in which CFR.org Editor Robert McMahon and Senior Vice President and Director of Studies James M. Lindsay give a preview of international developments to watch in the week ahead.”

    Library Alert 08/08/2016 - Futures

    FUTURES

    Compiled by Travis Ferrell, Research Librarian, U.S. Army War College Library

    This LibGuide focuses on Future Warfare and Futurology.  Topics covered include Strategic Forecasts and Weapons Research, Landpower, Space Warfare and Exploration, 3rd Offset, Geopolitics, and more.  

    Please click the following to view online: http://usawc.libguides.com/futures  

    Other LibGuides and bibliographies compiled by our research librarians are available online through the Library's webpage at

    http://usawc.libguides.com/curriculum_bibliographies

        

      Library Alert 07/18/2016

      • “The Uncertain Role of the Tank in Modern War: Lessons from the Israeli Experience in Hybrid Warfare” by Michael B. Kim, Association of the United States Army
        “Kim presents a case study of the Israel Defense Forces’ experience during Operation Protective Edge (2014) in order to inform the role of the M1 Abrams by analyzing hybrid threat trends, examining Army force-structure challenges & assessing the relevancy of combined-arms maneuver-in which the M1 Abrams tank is a key element-in the future operating environment. Based on this case study, the author argues that the role of this tank in the Army of 2015–2025 is to provide a mobile & survivable precision firepower platform to execute effective combined-arms operations against a sophisticated hybrid threat in urban & conventional environments. Given the nature of the military profession & the increasingly limited resources provided by our nation to execute combat, the responsibility to properly allocate resources, direct training and develop force structure is great. The Army must consider modernizing its armored platforms w/ an active armor protection system & improved munitions."
      • “The Foundations of Operations Resilience—Assessing the Ability to Operate in an Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) Environment” by Jeff Hagen et al., RAND Corporation
        “In the face of growing anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) challenges, the United States must posture airpower to accomplish missions while under intense and persistent attack. In other words, U.S. air forces must have operational resilience: the capacity to withstand attack, adapt, and generate sufficient combat power to achieve campaign objectives in the face of continued, adaptive enemy action...Little has been done to determine how potential adversaries could tailor their attacks for greatest effect in negating U.S. airpower capabilities or to assess a wide range of potential resilience improvements to evaluate trade-offs between them and identify which one or combination of measures would result in the most resilient force posture, theater-wide. Given this gap, the U.S. Air Force asked the RAND Corporation to develop a logical framework for assessing Air Force operational resilience in an A2/AD environment."
      • “Brexit and the Future of the United Kingdom” by Etain Tannam, Istituto Affari Internazionali
        “This paper aims to assess the significance of Brexit for the future of the UK as a unitary state and to identify various possible outcome to the future of the UK. The first part provides an overview of the current status of Scotland and Northern Ireland in the UK and the differences between both cases. The second part of the article assesses the significance of the EU for the devolved administrations and analyses key party responses to the Brexit debate in Scotland and Northern Ireland. In conclusion the impact of Brexit on the future of the UK as unitary state is assessed.”
      • “Case by Case: ISIS Prosecutions in the United States” by Karen J. Greenberg et al., Center on National Security at Fordham Law
        “One year ago, in June of 2015, the Center on National Security at Fordham Law released a report on the first 59 ISIS cases in U.S. federal courts. That report documented the charges, the overall biographical characteristics of the subjects, and the dispositions of those cases. Now, one year later, there have been a total of 101 ISIS-related cases. Ninety-four were indicted in federal courts. In the remaining seven, the suspects were killed by law enforcement. As before, these cases present a wealth of information, both about the ways in which the criminal justice system is processing these investigations and prosecutions and about the accused individuals themselves. This July 2016 report updates the prior one and adds new avenues of analysis to the understanding of the threat posed by ISIS in the United States.”

      Library Alert 07/11/2016 - The "Report of the Iraq Inquiry" (also known as the "Chilcot Report"), Brexit, and Transgender Military Service

      Today’s Library Alert will be more detailed than normal, because of several important recent events.

      1. The British Government recently published the “Report of the Iraq Inquiry,” also known as the “Chilcot Report”. The Iraq Inquiry’s mission was to examine the United Kingdom’s participation in Iraq. Specifically, it considered “the period from the summer of 2001 to the end of July 2009, embracing the run-up to the conflict in Iraq, including the way decisions were made and actions taken, to establish, as accurately as possible, what happened and to identify the lessons that can be learned.  Those lessons will help ensure that, if we face similar situations in future, the government of the day is best equipped to respond to those situations in the most effective manner in the best interests of the country.” This report is analogous to an After Action Report / Lessons Learned document for the United Kingdom as regards its participation in Iraq. Some commentary is provided.

      2. The full implications of Brexit, the 23 June Referendum in the United Kingdom to leave the European Union, are not fully known, but are expected to be major. Additional resources about Brexit, along with a link to the Brexit Library Alert dated 5 July 2016, are shared.

      3. As of 30 June 2016, Transgender persons are allowed to openly serve in the US military. Resources from the US Department of Defense as well as relevant studies from RAND and the Palm Center are shared.

      The above resources can be found here: http://usawc.libguides.com/libraryalert07112016

          

        Library Alert 07/05/2016 - Brexit

        Given the geopolitical and geoeconomic importance of the 23 June Referendum in the United Kingdom to leave the European Union, this Library Alert will focus exclusively on the implications of this vote. Normally, only academic research and reports are included in Library Alerts; however, as little time has passed since the Referendum, commentary, statements, and discussions from influential international security and foreign policy institutions in the United Kingdom, the United States, Continental Europe, and elsewhere are included. Some British government publications and news items are included as well.

        As of 5 July 2016, the following are the most detailed open access resources about Brexit of which the USAWC Library is aware. More detailed reports may become available in the future, in which case they will be considered for inclusion in future Library Alerts.

        Library Alert 06/20/2016

         

        General Note

        There is a known error with opening some files on the USAWC network. Instead of the full-text article you will get a window with an "X". If you come across this error, try the following:

        • Right-click on the link and select "Save Target As..." (Internet Explorer) or "Save Link As" (Firefox) to download the file directly to the computer. Then open the PDF from the drive that you saved it to; OR
        • Try again using Mozilla Firefox.

        The USAWC Library is unable to provide assistance opening links. The Library does, however, test links before publishing them to the Library Alerts webpage.

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